Caramels and Bonus Caramel Sauce

My favorite candy in the whole world is a good caramel. Which is why, for thirty years, I have been making them every holiday season to give to people I care about.

Over the decades, I have tried a lot of different recipes, but I always seem to return to a version I first found in the 1948 version of “The Settlement Cookbook” by Mrs. Simon Kander (the first edition was published in 1901).

Mrs. Kander was a woman whose life’s work was to help young, female Jewish refugees become assimilated in the United States. We all have to eat, she figured, and food and cooking was the way she taught her charges to live in America.

So here is my take on Mrs. Kander’s caramel recipe, finessed over the years. Her mission is still right on target. Those who eat together, can live together.

The biggest change in my version of her recipe has been to come up with a tag-along recipe, one that uses up the dregs in the caramel cooking pot. You see, if the pot is scraped to get the last little bit of caramel out of it, the results are usually disastrous. Those dregs crystallize, and then the whole batch of caramels crystallizes. Oy, as Mrs. Kander would say.

So resist, people! Do not scrape. Instead, throw those dregs back on the stove with some cream and flavoring, and harvest a bonus recipe of caramel sauce. The following is flavored with coffee, vanilla and brandy or rum, but you can make up your own variation. Whatever you do, it will be great on ice cream.

And if you want to dip these caramels in chocolate, have a look at my post on tempering chocolate for dipping candy centers.

If not, simply wrap the cut caramels in parchment or wax paper, or any other candy wrapper you choose. They will keep for weeks at cool room temperature, so if you make too many for this Thanksgiving, they will still taste pretty good come Christmas.

 

Caramel Candy and Bonus Coffee Caramel Sauce

For the Caramel Candy:

2 cups white sugar
2 cups corn syrup
3 cups cups heavy cream
¼ cup unsalted butter (plus a little more for buttering the pan)
1 teaspoon fine sea salt
2 tablespoons vanilla
an instant read thermometer
an 8 inch square pan
parchment paper

For the Bonus Coffee Caramel Sauce

the leftover caramel at the bottom of the pot
1 cup heavy cream
1 teaspoon instant espresso
1 tablespoon vanilla
1 tablespoon cognac or rum

To Make the Caramel Candy:

Grease the bottom and sides of the 8 inch pan with a little butter. Cut parchment paper to line the bottom and sides of the pan, place the paper in the pan, and grease the paper with a little more butter. Set aside.

Combine 2 tablespoons of vanilla and the salt in a small bowl or cup and set aside.

Place the sugar, corn syrup and one cup of the heavy cream in a large, heavy pot; this pot should be wide and shallow but large enough to accommodate the alarming bubbling up of the cooking caramel without over-flowing. I use a double clad eight quart stock pot.

sugar, corn syrup and cream boiling to make caramel

sugar, corn syrup and cream boiling to make caramel

Stir the ingredients together and place over medium heat. Bring to a rolling simmer, stirring often and being careful to make sure the pot doesn’t boil over and that the caramel doesn’t burn on the bottom.

When the mixture reaches a temperature of around 236 degrees, add one more cup of heavy cream, stir well, and continue the rolling simmer.

When the mixture reaches 236 degrees again, add 1 more cup of heavy cream and bring to a rolling simmer again.

When the mixture reaches 230 degrees, stir in the butter, combining until it is completely melted. Keep the mixture boiling, being careful it doesn’t burn on the bottom.

Keep a close eye on the thermometer as the temperature rises into the low 240s; be ready to take the pot off the heat the moment it reaches 245 degrees. The caramel’s temperature will continue to rise, and can get as high as 250, but anticipation is key. Much past 250, the caramel will be too hard, so watch the pot!

As soon as the mixture reaches 245 degrees, take it off the burner and stir in the vanilla and salt, then immediately pour the mixture into the prepared pan. When you get to the dregs at the bottom of the pot, stop pouring and place the pot back on the stove.

DO NOT SCRAPE THE POT.  Scraping will cause crystallization, and any tiny bit of crystallization that is introduced into the hardening caramel will cause the whole batch to crystallize over the next few days. In which case, it will still be edible, but not nearly as good.

Set the pan of cooling caramel in a dry, cool spot. If making the Coffee Caramel Sauce, this is the moment to head back to the stove. Otherwise, fill the dirty pot with water and let it soak.

At this point, you have at least twelve hours to kill before the caramels are ready to cut. Go binge-watch Netflix. However if, while binge-watching Netflix, you decide you can’t wait to try your caramels, as soon as the candy is cool enough not to remove skin on contact, you can scoop out a taste with a spoon from the corner. The remaining caramel will flow into the hole by the time you are ready to cut for real.

When the caramels are completely cool and set (12-24 hours after they hit the 8 inch pan in liquid form), they can be cut into pieces. Remember, though, that caramel is essentially a liquid in slow motion. Once cut, the individual pieces will melt and stick together if they are not contained inside a chocolate coating or a wrapper.

So before cutting, know whether you are going to: 1) dip them in chocolate, and/or 2) store them in candy wrappers, and be prepared with whatever is needed for the next step.

And if you can’t decide which way to go or don’t have the necessaries, don’t sweat it. The pan of caramels will keep for days at a cool room temperature, so you have lots of time to decide.

When you are ready to cut for real, be sure to have a very large, sharp knife on hand as well as a big cutting board that doesn’t smell like onions. A ruler is good if you love symmetry. Proceed as follows.

Using the parchment paper, lift the caramel out of the pan and place it on the cutting board. Cut the caramels into even-sized pieces according to your preference. These can range from bar-sized pieces (1 inch by 3 inches, say) to small pieces ½ inch x ½ inch.

caramels cut and ready to dip or wrap

cut caramels ready to dip  or wrap

Once cut, the caramels may be dipped in tempered chocolate, or wrapped in waxed or parchment paper. Don’t freeze or refrigerate caramels, no matter how they have been treated. Cooling will cause the caramels to absorb moisture and lose freshness. So long as all the ingredients used in the recipe were at their use-by dates, the caramels will keep well for a month at a cool room temperature.

Caramel and Caramel Coffee Sauce on ice cream

Caramel and Caramel Coffee Sauce on ice cream

To make the Coffee-Caramel Sauce

Pour 1 cup of heavy cream into the pot with the dregs of the caramel in it and place the pot over medium-low heat.

Stir well, scraping up the bits of caramel so they melt into the warming cream. When the caramel has dissolved pretty well into the cream, add the espresso powder, the vanilla and the cognac or rum to the mixture. Bring to a slow simmer and allow the sauce to thicken a bit.

When the sauce has thickened, remove it from the stove. Allow it to cool a bit before using it. Serve warm over ice cream. You may also pour it into a glass jar and seal with a lid and store in the refrigerator for a week or so. Remove the lid before carefully reheating in the microwave in 10 second bursts with stirring in between. It should take only 2 or 3 bursts before the sauce is pourable and warm.

Pear and Pecan Tart

Pear-Pecan Tart

Pear-Pecan Tart

The best seasonal recipes are templates that work with whatever happens to be available fresh from your backyard or local farmers’ market. This pear tart, for example, could turn into a plum tart, or a peach tart, or a fresh fig and raspberry tart (and yes, it’s possible to grow fresh figs in New Hampshire).

Unless you have access to a nut tree – and we do grow black walnuts, hazelnuts, butternuts, hickory nuts and chestnuts, among others in southern New Hampshire – your nuts probably won’t be local. But if you can get local nuts, use them, by all means.

The basic concept is to make a sandy mixture of nuts, sugar and flour, sprinkle it over a rectangle of pastry (puff pastry as here, but plain old pie dough will also work) and top it with very ripe fresh fruit. As the tart bakes, the fruit releases it’s juices, which are soaked up by the nut mixture. The nut mixture becomes soft and a little chewy, and the pastry stays crisp on the bottom.

For my tart, I used home-made, all butter puff pastry (here’s a link to that recipe) but you can substitute store-bought frozen puff pastry and get great results. Use Trader Joe’s or Dufour brands if you can find them, because they are made with butter and taste better than those made with shortening. Otherwise, Pepperidge Farm makes a reliable and easy-to-find frozen puff pastry.

These brands are packaged with slightly different weights, but all are close to 1 pound, which is what this recipe calls for, and all will work. Plan ahead so you can follow the directions on the package for refrigerator defrosting. And if the pastry comes in two pieces, simply make two smaller tarts.

This tart goes together quickly once the ingredients are assembled. Try serving it, as I did, fresh from the oven for a lazy Sunday morning brunch. It would also be delicious as the finale to a dinner party featuring the best of what fall has to offer. Either way, it is best eaten the day it is made, or it may become a little soggy.

Fresh Pear and Pecan Tart

  • 1 pound (approximately) puff pastry dough, defrosted
  • 4 very ripe, juicy, pears
  • 1 orange
  • 1 lemon
  • 1-½ cups pecans
  • ½ cup sugar, plus a few tablespoons more for sprinkling
  • 1 tablespoon flour

Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.

Roll the puff pastry, if necessary, into a rectangle about 12 inches by 14 inches, and a little less than ¼ inch thick. Use a knife to cut directly down (do not drag it – dragging seals the edges and will keep the pastry from rising) to even the edges of the dough (reserve the scraps and re-use if desired).

Place the puff pastry on a sheet tray that has been lined with parchment paper. Prick the pastry all over with a fork, leaving about 1-½ inches all around the edge of the pastry un-pricked. This will allow the edges to rise in the oven while the center of the tart stays flat. Place the dough in the refrigerator to rest.

While the dough is resting, zest the orange and lemon and reserve the zest. Squeeze the juices of the lemon and orange into a medium sized bowl.

Place the zest and ½ cup sugar in the bowl of a food processor and pulse until the zest is well combined with the sugar. Leave the sugar in the processor and proceed with the next step. This will allow the sugar to absorb the oils from the zest and add a lot of flavor to the mixture.

Peel the pears, one at a time. When a pear has been peeled, cut it in half, use a melon baller or other implement to scoop out the seed cavity and tough stem, and place the halves in the citrus juices, coating well to keep them from browning. Proceed until all the pears are soaking in the juice.

Place the nuts and the flour in the food processor with the sugar and zest and pulse until they make a coarse mixture.

Remove the pastry from the refrigerator. Lightly sprinkle it with half the remaining sugar all the way to the edges. Cover the pricked portion of the dough with the nut mixture. Arrange the pears on top of the nuts in a decorative manner (discard the citrus juice or use for another recipe). Sprinkle the tops of the pears with the remaining sugar.

Place the tart in the center of the preheated oven. Allow it to bake for 10-15 minutes until the edges have risen nicely, then reduce the temperature to 325 degrees. Continue baking for about another 45 minutes, turning once or twice to ensure even browning.

The tart is done when the pears have released their juices into the nut mixture and they are soft and beginning to brown a little on top. Allow the tart to rest for 10 minutes or so before cutting with a serrated knife. Serves 8 or more.

Rhubarb Swirl Ice Cream with Crumble Cookies and Rhubarb Crumble Muffins

Rhubarb Swirl Ice Cream with Crumble Cookies

Rhubarb Swirl Ice Cream with Crumble Cookies

Rhubarb is here at last, in all its tangy pink glory. Though technically a vegetable, culinarily rhubarb qualifies as the first fruit of spring, and its appearance at the end of a long winter is a cause for celebration in these parts.

It’s probably a good thing rhubarb makes its arrival solo, just when we are most hungry for fruit, or we might be tempted to ignore it. Truth is, compared to the riches to come – the sweet berries, luscious peaches and cherries of summer followed by the incomparable pears and apples of fall – rhubarb is pretty humble. For one thing, you can’t eat it sun-warmed and freshly picked, but must cook it first with lots of sugar to make it palatable. And then, once cooked, it loses its crunch altogether, taking on the consistency of one of those nutritious purees that babies and invalids make faces at.

But even cooked, rhubarb is a gorgeous sight (at least if you’ve got the pink kind, which is the only kind I bother with). Rhubarb tea, the color of pink bougainvillea, looks like it came straight from Jamaica. And while a little more subdued in hue, rhubarb fool (sweetened rhubarb puree mixed with whipped cream) beats even pink Marshmallow Fluff for eye appeal.

That said, for a rhubarb recipe to really shine, the mushiness of the fruit needs to be balanced by a crunchy component – think rhubarb pie and rhubarb crumble. I happen to be especially fond of crumbles of any sort. They are simplicity itself to make – one part butter, two parts flour, two parts sugar, a little spice, a little salt – mixed with deft fingertips in only a few minutes. And they are heavenly in the mouth, especially when coupled with something soft and tart, like rhubarb.

Knowing how to make rhubarb crumble is practically a citizenship requirement in New Hampshire, so I won’t bother with that recipe, but below you will find two variations on the theme. Both are made with lots of crumble and both contain the distinctly un-local addition of citrus fruits (sorry, diehard locavores), lemon in the first, orange in the second. There is something about citrus that makes it a perfect foil for rhubarb. Both recipes would be good without it, but with it are ever so much better.

Rhubarb Crumble Muffins

 For the muffins:

  • 2 cups flour
  • 1-1/4 cups sugar, divided into ½ and ¾ cups
  • 1/2 tsp. baking soda
  • 1 tsp. baking powder
  • ½ tsp. salt
  • 2 eggs
  • ½ stick (1/4 cup) unsalted butter (if you use salted, omit the salt), melted and cooled
  • grated rind of one lemon (wash before grating, especially if the lemon isn’t organic)
  • juice of one lemon
  • 1-1/2 cups chopped rhubarb (cubes should be ½” or less)
  • 1 cup plain yogurt or buttermilk, at room temperature
  • 1 recipe crumble (below)

Preheat the oven to 375 degrees. Line a muffin tray with muffin cups, or butter and flour each cup.

In a small bowl, combine the rhubarb, ½ cup sugar and the lemon rind. Set aside to macerate.

In a medium bowl combine the flour, ¾ cup sugar, baking soda, baking powder and salt. Set aside.

In a small bowl, whisk together the melted butter and eggs until well combined. Whisk in the yogurt or buttermilk and lemon juice.

Add the rhubarb to the dry ingredients and toss well to distribute the fruit. Pour the wet ingredients over the flour and rhubarb mixture and stir gently with a spatula or wooden spoon just until well combined.

Divide the batter between the 12 muffin cups. Sprinkle crumble over the batter, dividing the crumble evenly between the muffins. Bake in the preheated oven for about 20 minutes, turning once so they bake evenly. The muffins are done when they spring back when touched in the center.

Crumble

  • ½ stick (¼ cup) unsalted butter, still on the cool side, cut into pieces
  • ¼ cup brown sugar
  • ¼ cup white sugar
  • ½ cup flour
  • ½ tsp. cinnamon
  • pinch of salt

Combine all the ingredients in a bowl. Use your fingers to incorporate the butter into the dry ingredients until the mixture is well-combined. If the mixture is too sandy looking, squeeze the ingredients with your fingers and then break them apart into pea-sized crumbs.

 Rhubarb Swirl Ice Cream with Crumble Cookies

For the ice cream:

  • 2 cups milk
  • 2 cups heavy cream
  • ½ vanilla bean
  • grated rind of one orange (be sure to wash the orange well first, especially if it’s not organic)
  • ½ cup brown sugar (packed)
  • yolks of 8 eggs

For the rhubarb swirl:

  • 1 lb. rhubarb, chopped
  • ½ cup sugar
  • juice of one orange

Cut the vanilla bean in half the long way, then using a small knife scrape the seeds out of the bean into a medium pot. Add the bean, the milk, the cream and the orange rind to the pot and bring the mixture to a gentle simmer over low heat. Shut the heat off, put the lid on the pot and allow the mixture to steep while you prepare the rest of the recipe.

Combine the rhubarb, sugar and orange juice in a non-reactive pot and bring to a simmer over low heat. Allow the mixture to cook and thicken for about 20 minutes – ½ hour. Stir occasionally to keep the mixture from burning. The swirl is done when it takes on the consistency of jam. Allow the mixture to cool for several minutes and then refrigerate several hours until cold.

Reheat the cream mixture over a low flame. Meanwhile whisk the brown sugar into the egg yolks, combining for a minute or so until the mixture lightens and thickens just a little bit. Whisking constantly, pour some of the hot cream into the yolks to temper them. When you’ve poured about half the cream into the yolks, pour the tempered mixture into the pot with the rest of the cream. Keep the heat very low while you stir the mixture constantly with a wooden spoon, being sure not to let the mixture boil (this will cause it to curdle). The mixture will gradually thicken until it coats the wooden spoon; this will take about 5-10 minutes.

When the mixture has thickened, pour it into a bowl and then set the bowl into a larger bowl filled ½ way with ice water (be careful not to slosh water into the ice cream). Stir the ice cream to cool it quickly to room temperature. When cool, cover and refrigerate several hours, until cold.

When cold, use an ice cream maker to freeze the orange vanilla ice cream, following the manufacturer’s directions. When the mixture is ready for the freezer, scoop it into a container. Plop spoonfuls of the rhubarb mixture over the top of the orange-vanilla ice cream and then use a knife to swirl the mixture through the ice cream. Put the swirled ice cream into the deep freeze to harden for several hours.

When ready to serve, let it sit at room temperature until it warms enough to scoop easily. Scoop it onto crumble cookies and serve. If you like, use two cookies to make ice cream sandwiches.

Crumble Cookies

  • 1 stick unsalted butter (8 Tbs.), still on the cool side, cut into pieces
  • ¼ cup brown sugar
  • ¼ cup white sugar
  • ½ cup flour
  • ½ tsp. cinnamon
  • pinch of salt

Preheat the oven to 375 degrees. Put parchment paper on two cookie sheets.

Combine all the ingredients in a bowl. Use your fingers to incorporate the butter into the dry ingredients until the mixture is well-combined. If the mixture is too sandy looking, squeeze the ingredients with your fingers and then break them apart into pea-sized crumbs.

Divide the crumble into small piles, six to a sheet. Gently press the crumble down and shape it into 12 circles. Don’t press too hard – you want it to remain a bit crumbly.

Bake the cookies for 5 – 10 minutes, until the edges are brown and the center golden. Allow to cool on the cookie sheets before trying to move them.

Eggs from Pastured Chickens: Amazing

What to do with lots of fresh eggs: Goat Gouda and Pecan Meringues with Fresh Greens and Lemony Herb Dressing and Boston Cream Cupcakes

The flock of Black Jersey Giant hens I share with my sister-in-law has just turned four, and they’re still laying more eggs than our two families can absorb. Getting rid of the excess is no problem, though – actually quite the opposite.

Black Jersey Giant Hen

Black Jersey Giant Hen

Okay, I’m going to brag a little here; forgive me. Our eggs are really good. Our chickens are true free rangers, spending most of the day outside eating bugs and greens. The proof of their excellent diet is in the egg yolks, which are calendula orange, so bright that when I make cakes with them, the batter looks as if I’ve dyed it with yellow food coloring.

It turns out, according to several studies done by Mother Earth News, that the average egg produced by pastured chickens contains 7 times more beta carotene than the average conventional supermarket egg, hence the brilliant yolks. The studies also show pastured chickens produce eggs with ⅓ less cholesterol, ¼ less saturated fat, ⅔ more vitamin A, twice as many omega-3 fatty acids, 3 times more vitamin E, and between 4 and 6 times as much vitamin D.

Here are two egg-rich recipes. The first is for a whites-only nut and cheese meringue cracker that’s a delicious contrast to spring greens. The second recipe is a good way to use up the leftover yolks, Boston Cream Cupcakes, light enough that you’ll want to eat two, but rich enough that you should probably only eat one. The pastry cream recipe makes more than you’ll use filling the cupcakes, but it’s delicious on its own or topping fresh berries or stewed rhubarb.

Goat Gouda and Pecan Meringues with Spring Greens

Goat Cheese Gouda and Pecan Meringue with Spring Greens

Goat Gouda and Pecan Meringue with Spring Greens

  • ½ cup pecans
  • 2 ounces goat gouda, grated (about ½ cup)
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • ½ teaspoon cayenne or hot red pepper flakes (or to taste)
  • ½ teaspoon freshly grated black pepper
  • 4 large egg whites
  • tiny pinch of cream of tartar
  • a mixture of fresh spring greens, washed and dried, about 8 cups total
  • Lemony Herbed Salad Dressing (recipe below)

Preheat the oven to 300 degrees. Line a half-sheet tray with parchment paper; butter and flour the parchment. Set aside.

Place the pecans, cheese, salt, and peppers in the bowl of a food processor and pulse until the nuts are finely chopped. Be careful not to pulse so much the mixture turns into a paste.

In the bowl of an electric mixer whip the egg whites and the pinch of cream of tartar using the whisk attachment until the whites form soft peaks. Fold the nut mixture into the whites carefully, trying not to deflate the whites completely.

Spoon the batter evenly into 8 spots on the prepared parchment, leaving lots of space between the spots. Use a spoon to flatten and spread into approximately 4 inch wide rounds – don’t let the rounds touch.

Place in the oven – if your oven has a convection fan, turn it on as it will speed the cooking process. Cook the meringues until they are just golden brown, about 25 minutes. Turn off the oven, but leave the meringues in it and leave the convection fan on.

After 1/2 hour, remove the tray from the oven and allow the meringues to cool completely. To serve, place each meringue on a plate. Toss the greens with the dressing, then top each meringue with greens. Serve immediately, before the meringues get soggy.

Serves 8.

Lemony-Herb Salad Dressing

  • 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice (about 1/2 lemon)
  • 1 tablespoon rice wine vinegar (or other mild white vinegar)
  • ½ teaspoon sea salt
  • 1 small clove garlic minced
  • 5 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 4 tablespoons mild oil, such as sunflower
  • the leaves from several sprigs fresh thyme, lightly chopped (about 1/2 teaspoon)
  • 1 teaspoon fresh chopped dill

In a small bowl, whisk together the lemon juice, vinegar, salt and minced garlic. Gradually whisk in the oils, dribbling them in slowly so the mixture emulsifies. When all the oil has been added, whisk in the herbs. Makes about 3/4 cup.

Boston Cream Cupcakes

Boston Cream Cupcakes

Boston Cream Cupcakes

  • Light Pastry Cream (recipe below)
  • Chocolate Glaze (recipe below)

For the cupcakes (adapted from Cook’s Illustrated: The Science of Good Cooking):

  • 2 cups all purpose flour (fluff the flour a bit with the measuring cup before scooping and leveling with a knife – don’t pack it down)
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1½ teaspoons baking powder
  • ¾ teaspoon salt
  • 12 tablespoons unsalted butter, at cool room temperature, cut into 12 pieces
  • 3 large eggs, at room temperature (put in a cup of warm water if necessary)
  • ¾ cup whole milk, at room temperature (heat a little in the microwave, if necessary)
  • 1½ teaspoons vanilla
  • butter and flour to grease the cupcake pan

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Combine about 1 tablespoon of softened butter with about 1 tablespoon of flour to make a smooth paste. Use this mixture to grease the cupcake molds evenly and thoroughly.

Place the dry ingredients in the bowl of an electric mixer and stir gently with the paddle to combine. Add the butter a few chunks at a time while mixing gently. As the butter is cut into the dry ingredients, add more butter until it is all mixed in. You should wind up with a mixture that resembles coarse cornmeal.

Add the eggs, one at a time, combining well after each addition. Finally, add the milk and vanilla. Beat well a minute or two until light and fluffy.

Divide the batter evenly between the 12 cupcake impressions. Place in the oven and bake, turning once for about 20 minutes. The cupcakes are done when they have risen and spring back when touched in the center. A toothpick inserted in the center of a cupcake will come out clean. Try not to over-bake.

Let the cupcakes cool a few minutes before gently lifting them onto a cooling rack. Let them cool completely before filling and frosting.

To fill, cut the top off each cupcake and use a small sharp knife to cut a cone shape out of them – leave enough cake on the bottom and sides so that the cupcake doesn’t fall apart. Fill the cavity with pastry cream, enough so that a little squeezes out the side when the top is replaced. Spread the top of each filled cupcake with some of the chocolate frosting, enough so that it drips down the side. Chill the cupcakes until they set, then serve. Makes 12.

Light Pastry Cream

  • 1½ cups whole milk
  • ½ vanilla bean or 1 teaspoon vanilla
  • 4 large egg yolks
  • ½ cup sugar
  • ¼ cup flour, sifted
  • 2 tablespoons cold butter
  • ¾ cup cold whipping cream

Have ready a sieve fitted over a clean bowl, a whisk, and a wooden spoon. Place the milk in a medium saucepan. If using the vanilla bean, split it in half lengthwise and scrape the seeds into the milk. Add the bean halves to the milk along with about ⅔ of the sugar. Heat the milk over medium heat until it is just about to simmer.

Meanwhile, place the yolks in a medium bowl and whisk in the remaining sugar. Continue whisking for about a minute, until the yolks are lighter in color and a little thicker. Whisk in the sifted flour.

When the milk is hot, lower the heat beneath it. Temper the egg yolks by scooping out about a cup of the milk and pouring it into the bowl of egg yolks, whisking constantly. Add another cup of the hot milk, whisking constantly. Finally, pour the tempered egg yolks into the pot of hot milk, whisking constantly.

Heat the mixture over low, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Scrape the the pot with the spoon to incorporate the thickening mixture on the bottom back into the thinner mixture on top. Occasionally whisk the mixture briskly to break up lumps. Continue cooking the mixture, stirring constantly, until it just barely begins to bubble; it should be very thick. Pour the pastry cream through the sieve into the clean bowl. Stir the cold butter into the pastry cream until it melts and is completely incorporated.

Place the bowl of pastry cream in a cold bath of ice and water in a larger bowl being careful not to let any of the water get into the cream. Cover the surface of the cream with a piece of plastic wrap to keep a skin from forming on it as it cools. When the pastry cream is cooled, you may place it in the refrigerator for up to a day before proceeding.

When the pastry cream is completely cold, place the whipping cream into the chilled bowl of an electric mixer and whip with the chilled whisk attachment. Whip the cream until very stiff and thick, almost to the point of over-whipping. Fold the whipped cream into the cold pastry cream and use to fill the cupcakes.

Chocolate Glaze

  • 8 ounces good quality bittersweet or semisweet chocolate, chopped or chips
  • ⅔ cup heavy cream
  • 3 tablespoons corn syrup
  • 3 tablespoons cold unsalted butter

Combine the first three ingredients in a small pot and heat over a low flame microwave. Stir gently until the chocolate has melted and the mixture is homogenous. Remove from heat and stir in the butter until it has melted and is incorporated. Allow the mixture to cool a little before using to frost the cupcakes. Makes about 1¾ cups.

Rhubarb Yorkshire Pudding

Rhubarb Yorkshire Pudding is a riff on an old Shaker recipe. Like a classic French clafouti, it’s a combination of a flour-milk-egg batter, fresh fruit and sugar cooked in a hot pan in a hot oven so that it puffs up like a popover.

Later in the summer, substitute fresh cherries or plums for the rhubarb, and try apples in the fall. Just be sure to adjust the amount of sugar you use depending on how sweet the fruit is.

Rhubarb Yorkshire Pudding

  • ¼ cup butter (half a stick) cut into chunks
  • ¾ cup flour
  • ½ tsp. salt
  • 2 eggs
  • ¾ cup milk
  • ½ tsp. vanilla
  • 1 mounded cup of rhubarb chopped into ½ inch chunks (1-2 sticks)
  • ¾ cup sugar
  • ½ tsp. ground cinnamon
  • grated rind of one orange

Preheat the oven to 425 ℉. For the last several minutes of preheating, put a 10” ceramic or enameled pie plate into the oven to heat (don’t use a plain metal pie plate – it will react with the juices from the rhubarb).

Meanwhile, put the flour and salt into a large mixing bowl and whisk together well. Make a well in the center of the flour mixture.

In a separate bowl, whisk the two eggs just until well combined, then mix in the milk and vanilla. Pour this mixture slowly into the well in the flour mixture, whisking the flour from the edge of the well little by little into the egg mixture as you pour (this keeps the mixture from becoming lumpy). Stop mixing as soon as the last of the flour is completely combined in the batter.

Remove the pie plate from the oven, drop the chunks of butter into it and put it back into the oven until the butter is melted and bubbling. It’s okay if it browns a little – just don’t let it burn.

Meanwhile, toss the rhubarb well with half of the sugar, the orange rind and the cinnamon.

When the butter is bubbling, remove the pie plate from the oven and set it on top of the stove. Make sure you close the oven door again, so the oven stays very hot. Swirl the pie plate a little to evenly distribute the melted butter.

Pour the batter into the middle of the pie plate. This will push the butter off to the sides. That’s okay – ignore the temptation to stir! Scatter the rhubarb over the batter, leaving about an inch or so around the edges with no rhubarb on it. Then sprinkle the other half of the sugar over the rhubarb. Put the pudding into the oven.

Let it bake for about 15 minutes then rotate the pudding so it cooks evenly. Try to move quickly and don’t bang the oven door or the pudding might not rise properly. It will be done in about another 10 minutes – the top and bottom will be golden brown and it will have puffed beautifully, especially around the edges.

Allow it to sit for a few minutes before serving. Scoop it into bowls and top it with vanilla ice cream, whipped cream, or, as the Shakers did, pass around a pitcher of cold heavy cream.

Home-made Silken Tofu

One of my favorite restaurants in New York City is Kyotofu in Hell’s Kitchen.

silken tofu with maple syrup and walnuts
silken tofu with maple syrup and walnuts

I’d walked by the place for years and hadn’t been tempted to go in – a restaurant based around tofu just didn’t hold much appeal for me. But one day when my vegetarian son was fed up with pizza and Chinese food, we decided to give it a try. Which is how I discovered that freshly made tofu is as different from the store-bought variety as a fresh loaf of crusty sour dough is different from Wonder Bread.

My favorite dish at Kyotofu is a pristine white mound of silken tofu (made daily in the restaurant) served with three different sauces, olive oil and tomato, soy and sesame, and kuromitsu (made from unrefined brown sugar). The dish is simple and perfect – the cool, ethereal tofu balanced by the dark, earthy, flavor-packed sauces.

When I recently discovered Andrea Nguyen’s beautiful cookbook, Asian Tofu: Discover the Best, Make Your Own, and Cook it at Home, I decided to see if I could duplicate Kyotofu’s

silken tofu with dipping sauces
silken tofu with dipping sauces

wonderful appetizer. It turns out that making silken tofu is easy, and that yes, my homemade version was as good as Kyotofu’s.

It does take a little preparation, however. Silken tofu only contains three ingredients: good water, good dried soybeans and food grade gypsum (calcium sulfate). It’s not worth making unless you have the best quality of each on hand.

Food grade gypsum is used by home brewers, and is available at beer-making supply shops and on-line. My husband happens to be a beer-maker (an amazingly good one, lucky me), so I had a supply of gypsum available – it looks a lot like powdered chalk. As for water, if yours has chlorine in it, you will need to filter it, or buy/collect some good spring water.*

The soybeans can be found at health food stores, Asian markets and some grocery stores, or can be ordered on-line. I bought mine over the internet from Fairview Farms in Iowa, a family-owned business that sells non-GMO “Laura” soybeans. The beans are excellent,

Laura soybeans from Fairview Farms
Laura soybeans from Fairview Farms

big, yellow-skinned and very fresh, but they aren’t organic as far as I can tell. The ordering process was simple using a credit card and the beans arrived here in New Hampshire in under a week.

The first step in making silken tofu is to make rich soy milk. The soy beans are soaked overnight until plump, then ground with water in a food processor or blender to a thick slurry. This is then heated with more water, strained, and heated again (soy needs to be cooked throughly to make it digestible). The milk is then cooled and mixed with gypsum, which acts as a coagulant. This mixture is then gently steamed until it sets. The cooked tofu is refrigerated for several hours, after which it is ready to eat.

One trick I learned from Nguyen is that ingredients like citrus rind and maple syrup can be mixed into the soy milk before it is steamed. The results are like no tofu you will ever buy from a grocery store, good enough to turn even tofu-haters into tofu lovers.

The recipes below are based on those in Asian Tofu; if you like making things from scratch, I recommend you pick up a copy or take it out of your local library (though be warned, it is not strictly vegan or even vegetarian, though it does contain both sorts of recipes ). And while you’re at it, look for Andrea Nguyen’s other cookbooks – they’re all terrific.

Rich Soy Milk

  • 6 ounces dried soybeans, rinsed, then soaked overnight at room temperature until swollen and soft (soaking time depends on temperature – if your house is cold it will take longer)
  • 4-5 cups of water
  • you will also need a strainer lined with muslin or a clean linen or flour sack dishtowel

Combine the soy beans with 2 cups of water (you can use the soaking water, or use fresh water) in a food processor or blender. Pulse the mixture until the beans are chopped into

soybean puree
soybean puree

very small pieces. There should be no large pieces or whole beans left in the mixture; it will be quite pale and fluffy.

Pour the mixture into a large pot. Swirl 1½ cups of water in the bowl of the food processor or the blender to coax out any remaining bean puree, then add this to the pot. Turn the heat to low and, stirring frequently to keep the bottom of the pot from burning, bring the mixture to a simmer.

A white froth will float on top of the mixture, which makes it a little hard to see if the mixture is simmering or not, so peek beneath the froth from time to time to check. When the mixture comes to a simmer, let it bubble for several minutes, then turn off the heat.

froth on soybean milk
froth on soybean milk

Allow the mixture in the pot to steep off the heat for 5 or 10 minutes, while you prepare the strainer. Rinse the muslin or other liner with cool water, then line the strainer with the wet cloth. Place the strainer over a large bowl or pot to catch the soy milk.

Scoop the hot soybean mixture into the lined strainer, pressing down hard on the pureed beans (the “lees”) to extract all the milk from them. When all the liquid has drained, twist the top of the cloth closed and squeeze as much more liquid as you can from the lees. Finally mix about 1/2 cup of water into the lees and give them another squeeze. (The leftover lees can be added to soups or stews, or stir-fried with vegetables. In Japan they are often sold as animal feed – my chickens love them).

Return the milk to the pot (be sure to rinse it out first) and bring it to a simmer over low hit, stirring often to prevent scorching. Let the milk bubble slowly for five minutes, stirring occasionally. Pour the milk into a clean container (a metal bowl is good, because it helps to cool the milk quickly). Allow it to cool to room temperature, then refrigerate until cold.

Makes about 3 cups.

Silken Tofu

  • 3 cups chilled rich soy milk (if the milk you made measures less than this, add enough water to it to make 3 cups)
  • flavorings, if desired, such as grated orange or lemon rind (use organic fruit and wash well), maple syrup, etc.
  • 1½ teaspoons food-grade gypsum
  • heat-proof ramekins or custard cups
  • a large pot with a lid
  • a steamer rack to fit the pot

Put enough water into the pot so that it comes up to just below the steamer rack; put the lid on the pot. Turn on the heat and bring the water to a gentle simmer.

Meanwhile, combine the gypsum with about 2 teaspoons of water – just enough to make a paste. Stir the gypsum slurry into the cold soy milk and stir very well to combine completely.

Divide the soy milk between the ramekins (how many you need will depend on their size – probably around 5 or 6). At this point, you may add flavorings to the soy milk, such as a teaspoon or two of maple syrup or a pinch of freshly grated citrus rind.

Place the ramekins on the rack over the gently simmering water and return the lid to the pot. You may need to cook the tofu in batches, but that is fine. The tofu is done when it is set and no longer liquid in the center. How long this takes will depend on the size of your ramekins, but will probably be 15-20 minutes. A skewer inserted in the center of the tofu will leave a small hole behind when they are ready.

Lift the ramekins from the rack and set them on a tray to cool to room temperature. Cover the cooled tofu with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least two hours before serving. To unmold, run a knife around the sides of the ramekin to loosen the tofu, place a plate on top of the ramekin and invert. You may also serve the tofu in the ramekin.

Silken Tofu Serving Suggestions:

These ramekins are delicious with warm maple syrup and toasted walnuts. Or, serve them in Kyotofu’s style with three dipping sauces.

My three dipping sauces are:

  1. Equal parts chopped cilantro and basil, mixed with grated fresh garlic and good olive oil
  2. Equal parts fish sauce, water, and lime juice with a pinch of sugar, sliced limes, and hot pepper flakes
  3. 1/4 cup soy sauce, 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil, 1 teaspoon maple syrup, 2 tablespoons water, 2 chopped scallions.

*Many people in NH rely on wells rather than municipal water supplies, and sometimes the wells provide water that’s a little too full of iron, or even arsenic. Which is why locals always know where there’s a good spring from which to collect pristine water. You’ll see people by the side of the road with empty gallon jugs, holding them under an endlessly gushing pipe. No one ever seems to know who put the pipe there, who it was who decided to share that bountiful spring, because it happened a long time ago. Talk about paying it forward. I’m pretty sure no matter how much of a jerk that person was in life, sharing that water supply was enough to get him or her into heaven.

Puff Pastry Recipes

Puff pastry is a sublime demonstration of the power of mathematics. You begin by layering a block of butter between two layers of dough. Fold the dough in thirds, and now there are 3 layers of butter between the layers of dough. Let it rest, roll it out, fold it in thirds again and now there are 9 layers of butter. Repeat – 27 layers of butter. Repeat – 81 layers of butter. Repeat – 243 layers of butter. And one last time – 729 layers of butter, and 730 layers of dough (including the top and bottom layers).

As the puff pastry bakes, the butter fat melts, which separates the layers of dough, while the butter liquids turn to steam, forcing the layers apart and causing the pastry to rise in a spectacular fashion. And unlike a soufflé, which must be served immediately before it falls, properly baked puff pastry will maintain its loft even after it cools.

When golden brown and fully cooked, puff pastry is a delight in the mouth, melting almost as soon as it hits the tongue into rich, delicate shards. And rich as it is, puff pastry provides a neutral backdrop, working well with both sweet and savory fillings.

I think puff pastry’s reputation for being tricky to make has more to do with the cultivated mystique of the pâtissier than the reality of the recipe. It’s actually a pretty straightforward process, though it does require a cool kitchen and patience through all the resting and rolling. It also requires care in choosing ingredients – the butter needs to be cold, the flour needs to be bread flour.

It also requires care in measuring. I recommend weighing ingredients whenever you’re baking, for this recipe in particular. If you don’t have a scale, make sure you fluff up the flour, dip a measuring cup designed for dry ingredients into it, and then use a knife to level the cup (rather than tapping it on the counter, or pushing it down with your fingers, which compacts the flour). Here’s a link to my recipe for Puff Pastry.

The best thing about puff pastry is how flexible it is. Once it’s in your freezer, you’ll be able to throw together an impressive and delicious main dish or dessert in an hour or less. Here are links to three recipes that use puff pastry (either purchased or home-made):

Spinach Feta Tart

Spinach Feta Tart

A Rhubarb Tartlet

A Rhubarb Tartlet

A slice of maple tarte tatin

A slice of maple tarte tatin